Foreign exchange business, Darmstadt and Karlsruhe, 1878-1883. Came to the United States, 1883, naturalized citizen, 1888. Successively with Union, Atlas and First National banks, Chicago, 1883-1904.
With Guaranty Trust Company, New York, 1904-1918, Foreign Trade Banking Corporation, 1918-1920. Foreign exchange business on own account, 1920-1922. Director and member board Russian Commercial Bank, Moscow, Russia, 1922-July 1925.
Retired. Home: New York, New York Deceased.