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Karl Marx

Karl Marx, German social philosopher, economist.

Background

  • Marx, Karl was born on May 5, 1818 in Treves, Rhenish Prussia, Germany. Son of Heinrich (Hirschel) M., a lawyer.

  • Education

    • Studied law at U. Bonn, history and philosophy at U. Berlin. Doctor of Philosophy, University Jena, 1841.

    Career

    • Six children (3 reached maturity). Editor Radical newspaper, Rheinische Zeitung, Cologne, 1842-1843. Went to Paris, 1843; briefly co-edited a review there, studied reformist writings, met Friedrich Engels.

      With Engels, acquired a workers’ weekly in Brussels, Belgium. Joined “League of the Just,” wrote (with Engels) Communist Manifesto, public 1848, presenting view of history as class struggle, and exhorting working class to unite and take over means of production. Expelled from Paris and Germany.

      Lived in London, England., 1849-1883. Correspondent New York Tribune (staff of which included Fourierists), wrote on Crimean War, Eastern Question, American Civil War. Most prominent figure in International Workingmen’s Association, 1864-1876.

      Author: The Poverty of Philosophy, 1847 (a reply to Proudhon’s The Philosophy of Poverty). The Civil War in France, 1852. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, 1852.

      Critique of Political Economy, 1859. Value, Land and Profit, 1865. Das Kapital, Vol. I, 1867.

      Vols. II and III, educated by Engels, 1885-1895. Critique of the Gotha Program, 1875.

    Works

    • Editor Radical newspaper, Rheinische Zeitung, Cologne, 1842-1843. Went to Paris, 1843
    • briefly co-edited a review there, studied reformist writings, met Friedrich Engels. With Engels, acquired a workers’ weekly in Brussels, Belgium.

      Joined “League of the Just,” wrote (with Engels) Communist Manifesto, public 1848, presenting view of history as class struggle, and exhorting working class to unite and take over means of production. Expelled from Paris and Germany. Lived in London, England., 1849-1883.

      Correspondent New York Tribune (staff of which included Fourierists), wrote on Crimean War, Eastern Question, American Civil War. Most prominent figure in International Workingmen’s Association, 1864-1876. Author: The Poverty of Philosophy, 1847 (a reply to Proudhon’s The Philosophy of Poverty).

      The Civil War in France, 1852. The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, 1852. Critique of Political Economy, 1859.

      Value, Land and Profit, 1865. Das Kapital, Vol. I, 1867. Vols. II and III, educated by Engels, 1885-1895.

      Critique of the Gotha Program, 1875.

    Connections

    • Married Jenny von Westphalen, 1843.
    • father: Heinrich (Hirschel) M. Marx
    • spouse: Jenny von Westphalen
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    Born March 5, 1818
    Died March 14, 1883
    (aged 65)
    Nationality