Special agent Massachusetts Board to Investigate the Unemployed, 1894-1895. Instructor economics, Colorado College, 1895-1897, professor, 1898-1900, professor economics, Western Reserve University, 1900-1902. Economic study private research in Europe, 1902-1903.
Special examiner, United States Bureau Corporation, 1904-1912. Deputy commissioner of corporations, 1912-1915. Chief economist, Federal Trade Commission 1915-January 1, 1941.
Retired. Extensive researches European coal industry, 1905, oil industry, 1905, steel industry, 1908. As chief economist, Federal Trade Commission was in charge of government cost finding work during World War, 1917-1919, of the corporate and flnancial phases of electric and gas utility industries, 1928-1935, and of many other inquiries.