Studied social science in Europe as traveling fellow Cornell. Later fellow in Columbia. Secretary Cornell Summer School, 1898.
Deputy commissioner labor statistics, New York, 1899-1901. Chief statistician New York State Department Labor, 1901-1907. Chief statistician (in charge of statistics and accounts), Public Services Commission New York, 1st District, 1907-1921.
Chief accounting div., Public Service Commission, 1921-1923. Special agent United States Census, 1902. Corresponding International Association for Labor Legislation, 1st secretary American Association for Labor Legislation, 1906-1907.
Director Cities Census Committee, Inc., 1924-1932.