Member Massachusetts senate, 1872-1873. Chief Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, 1873-1888. United States Commissioner of Labor, 1885-1905.
Also, 1893-1897, completed 11th United States Census. Honorary professor social economics, Catholic University of America, 1895-1904. Professor statistics and social economics, School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Diplomacy, Columbian University, 1900.
University lecturer on wage statistics, Harvard University, 1900-1901. President Clark College, Worcester, Massachusetts, since 1902. President American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1903.
Appointed by President member and recorder United States Anthracite Strike Commission, 1902.
Author: The Factory System of the United States, 1880. Relation of Political Economy to the Labor Question, 1882. The Industrial Evolution of the United States, 1887.
Outline of Practical Sociology, 1899. Battles of Labor. 1906. Also History and Growth of the United States Census.
23 vols. of statist. representatives of the Massachusetts Bureau of Statistics of Labor, and 28 annual and special representatives of the unites states department of Labor. Decorated with Cross of Legion of Honor, France, 1907.