Thrown on own resources at 14. Worked in electrical factory (Chicago), press room (Detroit News), on farm (Mississippi), ranch (Texas), oil fields (Mexico), as auto salesman (Arizona), in logging camps (Washington and British Columbia), fish cannery (Alaska), as seaman (Seattle-Orient run), newspaper reporter (Australia), courier (Europe). Traveled around world, paying expenses by working.
1926-1928; in Europe, 1929-1930. Interviewed Hindenburg, Mussolini, Pope Pius XI, and others. Taught at Cranbrook (Michigan) School for Boys, 1930-1931.
Special correspondent New York Herald Tribune in Soviet Union, 1931, for New York Herald Tribune and National Broadcasting Company in Far East, 1933-1934.