Bachelor of Science, University Pittsburgh, 1937, Doctor of Philosophy., 1940. Sterling research fellow Yale University, 1940-1941. Research fellow Cornell Univercity, 1941-1942.
Instructor physics Princeton, 1942-1943. Head math, group Kellex Corporation, 1943-1946. Assistant, then associate professor of University Pitts, 1946-1948.
Head physics branch Office Naval Research, 1948-1950, physical science director, 1952-1954. Research professor of University Maryland., 1950-1959. General science director International Business Machines Corporation Corporation.
Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York, 1960-1963. Vice president research Institute Defense Analysis, Washington, 1963-1966. Albert Einstein professor physics U. Rochester, 1966-1981.
Also director Institute Fundamental Studies. Professor Institute Physical Science and Technology, U. Maryland., 1981-1983. Chairman Commision on Sociotech.
Systems, National Research Council, Washington, 1980-1983. Lorentz professor of University Leiden, Netherlands, 1961, 68.