Graduate Gymnasium, Elbing, 1876. University of Koenigsberg, 1876-1879 (studied mathematics, physics, chemistry and astronomy, 1877-1879). Assistant Royal Observatory, Koenigsberg, 1880-1882, continued studies at University of Berlin.
Traveled through Europe to study physical and electrical laboratory methods and equipments.
Identified with the manufacturer scientific instruments in Berlin, 1882-1889. Chief electrical engineer Weston Elec. Instrument Company, Newark, New York, 1891-1805.
Chief engineer and factory manager American Instrument Company, Newark, 1906-1909. Chief engineer Industrial Instrument Company, Foxboro, Massachusetts, 1909-1912. Consulting engineer, Swampscott, Massachusetts, since 1913.