Apprentice and draftsman, Delamater Iron Works, New York, 1878-1882. Assistant engineer New Jersey Steel & Iron Company (Cooper, Hewitt & Company), Trenton, New Jersey, 1882-1884. College engineer, 1884-1886, superintendent buildings and grounds, Columbia College, 1886-1890.
Superintendent Cary & Moen Steel Spring & Wire Mills, New York, 1890. Superintendent Braddock Wire Company, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1891. Assistant mechanic engineer, 1891-1893, assistant chief machinery department, 1893-1894, Chicago Exposition.
Western representative Bethlehem Steel Company, Chicago, 1894-1901, Eastern representative, New York, 1901. Vice-president and general manager Westinghouse, Nernst Lamp Company, Pittsburgh, 1902-1905. Consultant industrial engineer, New York, 1905-1912.
Founder and 1st secretary Efficiency Society, 1911. Secretary Organizing Committee for Congress of International Association for Testing Materials, 1912. Expert on industrial hygiene, Pittsburgh Survey, Russell Sage Foundation, 1912.
Expert on “fire hazard to life,” New York State Factory Investigating Commission, 1912-1914. Installed first means of escape from fire, for bedridden hospital patients in city hospitals, New York City, 1912-1914. Consultant engineer on employment management, Hercules Powder Company, Wilmington, Delaware, 1915-1918.
Secretary National Museum of Engineering and Industry, since 1918. Director National Committee for Prevention of Blindness.