Assistant superintendent Witherbee, Sherman & Company, mines, Lake Champlain, New York, 1890-1892. Special exploration on Missabe Range, 1892-1894. Mining engineer for Rouchleau Ray Iron Company, 1894-1898, for Lake Superior Consolidated Iron Mines, 1898, until United States Steel Corporation was formed, 1901.
Became mining engineer and superintendent explorations and mineral lands on Missabe Range, for Oliver Iron Mining Company, 1901. General mining engineer for same company, 1905-1930.