Author of series of pamphlets advocating legal reform, particularly abolition of lawyers (with court appointed referees) and simplification of legal code, 1786. Member Massachusetts Senate from Boston, 1787, 89-94, 96. Became leader of mob in local politics.
An extreme anti-Federalist. Manager Harvard College lotteries. A leader Boston Constitutional Club (encouraged popular riots and aroused bitter opposition of Federalists), 1794.
Lost influence in local politics after 1796. Published many newspaper articles supporting Republican cause. Appointed federal loan commissioner by President Jefferson, 1803.