Invented a breech-loading rifle. Major general Rhode Island Militia. Organized 1st Rhode Island Regiment, 1861.
Commissioned brigadier general, 1861, major general, March 18, 1862. Commander Army of Potomac, 1862. Relieved of his command upon failure of Fredericksburg campaign.
Served under Grant at Petersburg, failed to force way through after mine explosion, resigned from United States Army upon court of inquiry’s assertion of blame, 1865. Governor Rhode Island, 1866-1869. Member United States Senate from Rhode Island, 1875-1881.
Born March 23, 1824