Church, 1847, ordained to ministry, 1848. Founder 1st Presbyterian Church St. Paul, Minnesota Territory, 1849, pastor, 1849-1854. Pastor House of Hope Presbyterian Church, 1855-1860.
Secretary Minnesota History Society, 1851-1863. A founder St. Paul Public school system. 1st superintendent instruction Minnesota Territory, 1851-1853.
Founder, president Baldwin school and College St. Paul. Chancellor University of Minnesota, 1858-1861. State superintendent public instruction Minnesota, 1860-1861.
Chaplain 1st Minn Infantry, 1861-1862. Hospital chaplain United States Army, Philadelphia, 1862-1864. Assistant secretary to presidents Lincoln and Johnson.
United States consul in Dublin, Ireland. Founder Minnesota Jesus College, 1872. President Macalester College, 1874-1884, professor of history, English literature and political economy, 1885.
Author: A History of Minnesota, 1858. Terra Mariae; or Threads of Maryland Colonial History, 1867. Virginia Carolorum, 1886.
Concise History of Minnesota, 1887.