Ordained to ministry Presbyterian Church, 1857. Trustee Insane Asylum of California, 1860. Chaplain 3d Regiment, California Volunteer Infantry, 1862.
California correspondent, agent United States Sanitary Commission, 1863-1867. Superintendent transportation United States Army in Wilderness Campaign, 1864. Editor Sanitary Bulletin, Philadelphia.
Minister 1st Presbyterian Church, Junction City, Kansas, 1868-1872. President Kansas State Agricultural College, 1873-1879. Member United States House of Representatives from Kansas, 46th-51st congresses, 1879-1891.
United States consul general at Cairo, Egypt, 1891.