Went to Kansas, 1854, later to St. Cloud, Minnesota. Served in Union Army as captain 3d Minnesota Infantry, November 4, 1861. Lieutenant colonel, December, 1862.
Colonel, August 9, 1863. Brigadier general vols., January 5, 1864. Bvtd. major general vols., March 9, 1865.
Honorary mustered out, January 15, 1866, United States minister to Sweden and Norway, 1869-1877. Supervisor United States Census, Minnesota, 1880. Consul general Rio de Janeiro, 1882-1885.
Forestry commissioner of Minnesota, 1895-1911. Secretary Minnesota Forestry Board, 1899-1923. Author: History of Campaign of Mobile, 1867.
Brazil, Its Conditions and Prospects, 1886. Administrative Reform, etc. Furnished report on forestry of Sweden to unites states department of State, 1872.
16 of his annual reports on forestry have been published. Home: St. Paul, Minn.