Admitted to Ohio bar, 1859, and began practice law. Delegate Baltimore Democratic Convention, 1860. Commissioned captain Company F, 32d Ohio Volunteers, United States Army, 1861, lieutenant colonel, then colonel, 1862, fought at Memphis, Vicksburg, Atlanta, Savannah, brigadier general, 1865, retired, 1866.
Member Ohio Senate (Republican), 1868. Territorial governor Montana, 1870-1883, wrote Report of the Governor of Montana … to the Secretary of the Interior … 1878-1879. Under his administration, territorial debt almost paid off, legislation passed to modernize civil and criminal laws and procedures.
Member Montana Territorial Legislature, 1884.