Admitted to Philadelphia bar, 1859. Served as adjutant general with rank brigadier general New York Volunteers, 1860-1861, directed military efforts of New York State in opening months of Civil War. Consul general at Paris, France, 1869.
Counsul general to Germany during Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1872. Minister resident in Greece, 1873. Secured revocation of order against sale of translations of Bible and other religious works circulated by British and American bible societies.
For purposes of economy United States Congress reduced his rank to charge d’affaires, 1876, cut off all appropriations for the legation, 1878. He served at post without compensation until September 1879. Received highest Greek decoration.
Author: A Historical Inquiry Concerning Henry Hudson, 1866. Historic Studies in Vaud, Berne, and Savoy: From Roman Times to Voltaire, Rousseau, and Gibbon, 1897.