Taught in an academy, 3 years. Purchased the Clinton (North Carolina) Caucasian, 1888, removing it to Raleigh, 1894. Admitted to bar, 1899.
In practice, Raleigh and Washington. Largely interested in agriculture.
Author of the state railway commission law, also of the six per cent interest law. Led fight to improve the public schools. Left Democratic party, 1892, and assisted in organizing Peoples party.
Chairman National Executive Committee, same, 1896-1904. Then affiliated with Republican party. United States senator, North Carolina, 1896-1901.
Author of the law establishing the present rural free delivery system. Secured first favorable report on bill to establish postal savings banks. Urged the establishment of the parcels post.
Led fight for appropriation to build the first modern submarine boat, President State Farmers’ Alliance, 1891. National Farmers’ Alliance and Industrial Union, 1894. Trustee and member Executive Committee of University of North Carolina, 1891-1899.
Delaware Republican National Convs., 1912, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32.