Party affiliation: Republican
Instructor economics, State University of Iowa, 1903, University of Pennsylvania, 1903-1905. Special work, Bureau Labor, Washington, 1905-1906. Correspondent in Washington for New York Journal Commerce, 1906-1907.
Special agent, Interstate Commerce Commission, 1907. American consul at Saigon, Cochin China, 1907-1909, at St. Petersburg, Russia, August 27, 1909-April 1914.