Was secretary to governor of Iowa 1890-1892, and in newspaper work, Dubuque, Iowa. Lieutenant colonel 49th Iowa Vols., Spanish-American War, 1898-1899. Editor Dubuque Herald until 1903.
In customs service, Philippine Islands, 1903-1911, collector of customs, Iloilo, and surveyor of port, Manila. Collector general of customs, Republic of Nicaragua, by appointment of President of Nicaragua, and fiscal agent for bonded foreign loans of Nicaragua, since December 1911.