Graduated from the United States Naval Academy, 1883. A.M., Princeton. 1896. After 2 years’ cruise in European waters (part of time junior aide to commander-in-chief European Squadron), passed final examination in 1885.
Commissioned ensign United States Navy, July 1, 1885. Attended course at Torpedo Station, Newport, Rhode Island, and was stationed at Ordnance Proving Grounds, Annapolis. Resigned from Navy June 30, 1886.
Admitted New York bar, 1889. Appointed 2d secretary United States Legation, Berlin, December 30, 1890. Secretary of embassy, November 15, 1894.
Frequently served as charge d’affaires at Berlin. Was member special missions at 25th anniversary of the accession of King Albert of Saxony, and of accession of Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands, 1898. Offered and accepted mission to Chili but appointed Envoy Extraordinary anu Minister Plenipotentiary, United States to Greece, Roumania and Servia, October 13, 1902, and diplomatic agent in Bulgaria, June 5, 1903.
Represented United States at coronation King Peter of Servia, September 21, 1904. Appointed Envoy Extraordinary anu Minister Plenipotentiary to Greece and Montenegro and diplomatic agent in Bulgaria, March 6, 1905. Appointed Envoy Extraordinary anu Minister Plenipotentiary to Persia, June 18, 1907, to Cuba, December 1909, to Roumania, Servia and Bulgaria, August 1911.
Resigned, 1913. Vol. assistant at American Embassy, Berlin, from September 1914. Special agent of Department of State to report on German prisoners of war in England, January-February 1914. Later at Embassy, Berlin, until February 1917, in charge British section.
Visited camps of British, Servian and Roumanian prisoners of war. Declined position as counsellor to Siamese Foreign Office, October 1914. Delaware to International Maritime Law Conference, Hamburg, 1902, International Archæol.
Congress, Athens, 1905. American representative at Olympic games, Athens, 1906. Special representative of the President with rank of ambassador, at Sofia, February 1912, for the coming of age of the Crown Prince (Boris) of Bulgaria.