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Leon Warnerke

Leon Warnerke was an engineer and inventor in the field of photography, independence activist and revolutionary. Leon Warnerke was a pseudonym; his real name was Władysław Małachowski.


  • Leon Warnerke was born on 26 May 1837 to a Polish-Lithuanian szlachta family in manor Macie, Grodno Governorate, Lithuania, Russian Empire (today Belarus).

  • Education

    • He graduated from the Corps of Railroad Engineers in 1859.


    • He left St. Petersburg, Russia, in 1870 for London, where he started a photochemical company. Having invented a film-roll holder in 1875, he also experimented with the production of silver bromide collodion emulsion, producing silver bromide films on gelatinized paper and becoming the first to use "stripping films" with a roller dark-slide. In 1889 Warnerke produced gelatin silver chloride paper, calling it "the printing process of the future." He devised the sensitometer in 1880 - the first practical device for measuring exposures - and in 1885 introduced and patented a negative paper coated on both sides. Warnerke lectured frequently before the photographic societies of England, France, Belgium and Germany. He returned to St. Petersburg and founded a photographic firm there in 1880 as well as a technical journal, then retired to Geneva around 1898-99.

    Major achievements

    • PUBLICATIONS Books: Ausführliches Handbuch der Photographie, losef Maria Eder, 1:3, 1912 ed., & 2:2, 1927 ed.; Cassell’s Cyclopedia, 1911, repr. 1973; History of Photography, Josef Maria Eder, 1905, repr. 1972.
    Leon Warnerke
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    Born 1837
    Died 1900
    (aged 62)
    of Polish-Lithuanian szlachta family
    • 1880
      founded a photographic firm
      London, City of London, United Kingdom