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Carl Jung (Gustav)

Carl Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and founder of analytical psychology. He is best known for his theories of the Collective Unconscious, including the concept of archetypes, and the use of synchronicity in psychotherapy. Along with Sigmund Freud, Jung pioneered modern theories of the relationships between the conscious and unconscious aspects of mind.

Background

  • Carl Gustav Jung was born in Kesswil, Switzerland to father Paul Achilles Jung, a pastor, and mother Emilie Preiswerk. He was their fourth, but only surviving child. His mother was frequently depressed and absent from the household, but her mood eventually lifted once the Jung's moved closer to her family. Jung later described himself was an introverted and solitary child, saying that he was most happy when he was left alone to his thoughts.

  • Education

    • Shortly before the end of his first year at the Humanistisches Gymnasium in Basel, at the age of twelve, he was pushed to the ground by another boy so hard that he was for a moment unconscious (Jung later recognized that the incident was his fault, indirectly). A thought then came to him that "now you won't have to go to school any more." From then on, whenever he started off to school or began homework, he fainted. He remained at home for the next six months until he overheard his father speaking worriedly to a visitor of his future ability to support himself, as they suspected he had epilepsy. With little money in the family, this brought the boy to reality and he realized the need for academic excellence. He immediately went into his father's study and began poring over Latin grammar. He fainted three more times, but eventually he overcame the urge and did not faint again. This event, Jung later recalled, "was when I learned what a neurosis is."

      In 1895, Jung studied medicine at the University of Basel.

    Career

    • Jung decided to study medicine, but also developed an interest in spiritual phenomena while in school. It was this fascination with medicine and spirituality that led him into the field of psychiatry, which he viewed as a combination of his two interests. In 1902, he completed his doctoral dissertation, titled "On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena" and graduated from University of Basel with a medical degree.

    Works

    • Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology,
    • Psychology of the Unconscious
    • Psychological Types
    • Psychology and Religion

    Politics

    Stressed the importance of individual rights in a person's relation to the state and society. He saw that the state was treated as "a quasi-animate personality from whom everything is expected" but that this personality was "only camouflage for those individuals who know how to manipulate it".

    Party affiliation: Opposed To Nazism

    Religion

    During several decades, Jung's ideas on religion gave a counterbalance to the Freudian scepticism on religion. Jung's idea of religion as a practical road to individuation has been quite popular, and is still treated in modern textbooks on the psychology of religion, though his ideas have also been criticized.

    Denomination: Swiss Reformed

    Views

    The main term in his philosophy of life was individuation - a psychological process of integrating the opposites including the conscious with the unconscious while still maintaining their relative autonomy, necessary for a person to become whole. Individuation is a process of transformation whereby the personal and collective unconscious is brought into consciousness (by means of dreams, active imagination or free association to take some examples) to be assimilated into a whole personality. It is a completely natural process necessary for the integration of the psyche to take place. Individuation has a holistic healing effect on the person, both mentally and physically. Besides achieving physical and mental health, people who have advanced towards individuation tend to be harmonious, mature and responsible. They embody humane values such as freedom and justice and have a good understanding of the way human nature and the universe function.

    He also had a special attitude to spirituality: Jung's work on himself and his patients convinced him that life has a spiritual purpose beyond material goals. Our main task, he believed, is to discover and fulfill our deep innate potential. Based on his study of Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism, Gnosticism, Taoism, and other traditions, Jung believed that this journey of transformation, which he called individuation, is at the mystical heart of all religions. It is a journey to meet the self and at the same time to meet the Divine. Unlike Sigmund Freud, Jung thought spiritual experience was essential to our well-being.

    Membership

    • General Medical Society for Psychotherapy , Germany
      1933 - 1939

    Personality

    Interests

    Alchemy, spirituality, Eastern and Western philosophy, astrology, sociology, literature, the arts, philosophy, the occult.

    Connections

    • father: Paul Achilles Jung - Switzerland - rural pastor
      Paul Achilles Jung was a poor rural pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church.
    • mother: Emilie Preiswerk - Switzerland
      Emilie Preiswerk came from a wealthy and established Swiss family.
    • Wife: Emma Rauschenbach - Switzerland - psychoanalyst
      In 1903, Jung married Emma Rauschenbach, who came from a wealthy family in Switzerland. They had five children: Agathe, Gret, Franz, Marianne, and Helene. The marriage lasted until Emma's death in 1955.
    • Mistress: Sabina Spielrein - Russia - physician, psychoanalyst
      Sabina Naftulovna Spielrein (7 November 1885 – 12 or 14 August 1942) was a Russian physician and one of the first female psychoanalysts. She was in succession the patient, then student, then colleague of Carl Gustav Jung. She also met, corresponded, and had a collegial relationship with Sigmund Freud. One of her more famous analysands was the Swiss developmental psychologist, Jean Piaget. She worked as a psychoanalyst and teacher in Switzerland and Russia. Her best known and perhaps most influential published work in the field of psychoanalysis is the essay titled "Destruction as the Cause of Coming Into Being", written in German in 1912.
    • Mistress: Toni Wolff - Switzerland - psychoanalyst
      Antonia Anna "Toni" Wolff (18 September 1888 — 21 March 1953) was a Swiss Jungian analyst and a close associate of Carl Jung. During her analytic career Toni Wolff published relatively little under her own name, but she helped Jung identify, define, and name some of his best-known concepts including anima, animus, and persona. Her best-known paper was an essay on four "types" or aspects of the feminine psyche: the Amazon, the Mother, the Hetaira (or Courtesan), and the Medial (or mediumistic) Woman.
    • Daughter: Agathe Jung - Switzerland
    • Son: Gret Jung - Switzerland
    • Son: Franz Jung - Switzerland
    • Daughter: Marianne Jung - Switzerland
    • Daughter: Helene Jung - Switzerland
    Carl Jung
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    Born July 26, 1875
    Died June 6, 1961
    (aged 85)
    Nationality
    Ethnicity:
    • 1886 - 1894
      gymnasium
    • 1895 - 1900
      University of Basel
    • 1900 - 1906
      Burghoelzli, a psychiatric hospital
      Zürich
    • 1905 - 1913
      lecturer in psychology, University of Zurich
    • 1910 - 1913
      Chairman for life, International Psychoanalytical Association

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    • Career
      • International Psychoanalytical Association
        • Position
      • University of Zurich
    • Works
      • book: Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology,
      • book: Psychology of the Unconscious
      • book: Psychological Types
      • book: Psychology and Religion
      • book: Essays on a science of mythology
      • book: Psychology and Alchemy
      • book: Two Essays on Analytical Psychology
      • book: The Psychology of the Transference and Other Papers on the Analytical Process
      • book: The Undiscovered Self
      • book: Memories, Dreams, Reflections
    • Membership
      • General Medical Society for Psychotherapy
    • Other Names
    • Middle Name
    • Album
      • Photo
      • Photo
      • Photo
      • Photo
    • Place
    • School
      • gymnasium
        • present
        • Main photo
    • College/University
      • University of Basel
        • present
        • Main photo
    • Career
      • Burghoelzli, a psychiatric hospital
        • Address
        • mainPhoto
      • University of Zurich
        • Address
        • mainPhoto
      • International Psychoanalytical Association
        • Address
        • mainPhoto
    • Address
    • Family description
    • Membership
      • General Medical Society for Psychotherapy
        • Notes
        • mainPhoto
    • Membership description
    • Works
      • book: Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology,
        • Link
        • Works description
        • mainPhoto
      • book: Psychology of the Unconscious
      • book: Psychological Types
      • book: Psychology and Religion
      • book: Essays on a science of mythology
      • book: Psychology and Alchemy
      • book: Two Essays on Analytical Psychology
        • Link
        • Works description
        • mainPhoto
      • book: The Psychology of the Transference and Other Papers on the Analytical Process
        • Link
        • Works description
        • mainPhoto
      • book: The Undiscovered Self
        • Link
        • Works description
        • mainPhoto
      • book: Memories, Dreams, Reflections
        • Link
        • Works description
        • mainPhoto
      • book: Psychology of the Unconscious: A Study of the Transformations, and Symbolisms of the Libido, a Contribution to the History of the Evolution of Thought (Classic Reprint)
      • book: Schriften zur Angewandten Seelenkunde. Der Inhalt der Psychose. Akademischer Vortrag, Gehalten im Rathause der Stadt Zürich am 16 Jänner 1908 (German Edition)
      • book: Collected Papers on Analytical Psychology
      • book: Nervous and Mental Disease Monograph Series, No. 19; The Theory of Psychoanalysis
      • book: Zur Psychologie und Pathologie Sogenannter Occulter Phänomene: Eine Psychiatrische Studie (German Edition)
    • Relatives
      • Paul Achilles Jung
        • mainPhoto
      • Emilie Preiswerk
        • mainPhoto
      • Emma Rauschenbach
        • mainPhoto
      • Sabina Spielrein
        • mainPhoto
      • Toni Wolff
        • mainPhoto
      • Agathe Jung
        • mainPhoto
      • Gret Jung
        • mainPhoto
      • Franz Jung
        • mainPhoto
      • Marianne Jung
        • mainPhoto
      • Helene Jung
        • mainPhoto
    • Views and World outlook
    • School description
    • College/University Description
    • Personality
    • Quotes from others about the person
    • Physical Characteristics
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