logo logo

Dwight David Eisenhower (Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower)

Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States. He was a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe. Eisenhower became the first supreme commander of NATO. He was the last U.S. President to have been born in the 19th century.

Background

  • Eisenhower was born on October 14, 1890, in Denison, Texas, the third of seven boys. His mother originally named him David Dwight but reversed the two names after his birth to avoid the confusion of having two Davids in the family. All of the boys were called "Ike", such as "Big Ike" (Edgar) and "Little Ike" (Dwight); the nickname was intended as an abbreviation of their last name.

    In 1892, the family moved to Abilene, Kansas, which Eisenhower considered as his home town. As a child, he was involved in an accident that cost his younger brother an eye; he later referred to this as an experience teaching him the need to be protective of those under him. Dwight developed a keen and enduring interest in exploring outdoors, hunting/fishing, cooking and card playing from an illiterate named Bob Davis who camped on the Smoky Hill River.

    While Eisenhower's mother was against war, it was her collection of history books that first sparked Eisenhower's early and lasting interest in military history. He persisted in reading the books in her collection and became a voracious reader in the subject. Other favorite subjects early in his education were arithmetic and spelling.

  • Education

    • He was a regular violator of the detailed regulations, and finished school with a less than stellar discipline rating. Eisenhower's best subject was English. He played for a football team there. After having his knee torn, he turned to fencing and gymnastics.

    Career

    • Dwight Eisenhower was the 34th President of the United States from 1953 until 1961. He had previously been a five-star general in the United States Army during World War II, and served as Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in Europe; he had responsibility for planning and supervising the invasion of North Africa in Operation Torch in 1942–43 and the successful invasion of France and Germany in 1944–45, from the Western Front. In 1951, he became the first supreme commander of NATO.

      After World War II Eisenhower served as Chief of Staff under President Harry S. Truman, then assumed the post of President at Columbia University.

      Eisenhower entered the 1952 presidential race as a Republican, to counter the non-interventionism of Senator Robert A. Taft, and to crusade against "Communism, Korea and corruption". He won by a landslide, defeating Democrat Adlai Stevenson and ending two decades of the New Deal Coalition. In the first year of his presidency Eisenhower deposed the leader of Iran in the 1953 Iranian coup d'etat, and used nuclear threats to conclude the Korean War with China. His New Look policy of nuclear deterrence gave priority to inexpensive nuclear weapons while reducing the funding for conventional military forces; the goal was to keep pressure on the Soviet Union and reduce federal deficits. In 1954 Eisenhower first articulated the domino theory in his description of the threat presented by the spread of communism. The Congress agreed to his request in 1955 for the Formosa Resolution, which enabled him to prevent Chinese communist aggression against Chinese nationalists and established U.S. policy of defending Taiwan. When the Soviets launched Sputnik in 1957 he had to play catchup in the space race. Eisenhower forced Israel, the UK and France to end their invasion of Egypt during the Suez Crisis of 1956. In 1958 he sent 15,000 US troops to Lebanon to prevent the pro-Western government from falling to a Nasser-inspired revolution. Near the end of his term, his efforts to set up a summit meeting with the Soviets collapsed because of the U-2 incident when an American spy plane was shot down over Russia and its pilot captured.

      On the domestic front, he covertly opposed Joseph McCarthy but contributed to the end of McCarthyism by openly invoking the modern expanded version of executive privilege. He otherwise left most political activity to his Vice President, Richard Nixon. He was a moderate conservative who continued New Deal agencies, expanded Social Security and launched the Interstate Highway System. He sent federal troops to Little Rock, Arkansas, for the first time since Reconstruction to enforce federal court orders to desegregate public schools, and signed civil rights legislation in 1957 and 1960 to protect the right to vote. He implemented desegregation of the armed forces in two years, and made five appointments to the Supreme Court. He was the first term-limited president in accordance with the 22nd Amendment.

      Eisenhower's two terms were peaceful ones for the most part and saw considerable economic prosperity except for a sharp recession in 1958–59. Eisenhower is now often ranked as one of the top ten U.S. Presidents.

    Major achievements

    • June 6, 1944, D-day, was the beginning of the end for the war in Europe. Eisenhower was promoted to the rank of General of the Army (5 stars) in December of that year.
    • President Eisenhower supported and signed the 1957 and 1960 Civil Rights Acts, and ordered federal troops to Little Rock to enforce the desegregation of Central High School. Eisenhower expanded social security, increased the minimum wage, and established the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (Department of Health, Education and Welfare). During the Eisenhower years, the Interstate Highway System and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) were created, and space exploration began. Near the end of his presidency, in 1959, Alaska and Hawaii became the 49th and 50th states of the Union.

    Politics

    He crusaded against "Communism, Korea and corruption", used nuclear threats to conclude the Korean War with China, presented his New Look policy of nuclear deterrence to the world. Articulated the domino theory.

    Party affiliation: Republican Party

    Religion

    Denomination: Presbyterian

    Personality

    Interests

    Sport & Clubs: Baseball

    Connections

    • father: David Jacob Eisenhower
    • mother: Ida Stover Eisenhower
    • First Lady of the United States
    • Son: Doud Icky Dwight
    • Son: John Eisenhower
    Dwight Eisenhower
    See on larger map
    Born October 14, 1890
    Died March 28, 1969
    (aged 78)
    Nationality
    Ethnicity:
    • 1909
      Abilene High School
    • 1911 - 1915
      West Point Military Academy
    • 1915 - 1917
      coach of the post's football team, United States Army
      Texas, Ft. Sam Houston
    • 1919 - 1919
      Tank Corps observer, War Department's First Transcontinental Motor Convoy
    • 1922 - 1924
      executive officer to General Fox Conner, United States Army
      Panama Canal Zone
    • 1924 - 1926
      Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth
    • 1933 - 1939
      assistant military advisor, United States Army
    • 1941 - 1941
      Chief of Staff for the Third Army, United States.Army
      Ft. Sam Houston
    • 1941 - 1943
      War Plans Division
      DC, Washington
    • 1943 - 1944
      Supreme Commander Allied Expeditionary Forces, United States.Army
    • 1945 - 1945
      Military Governor, United States Occupied Zone, United States.Army
    • 1945
      Chief of Staff, United States Army, United States.Army
    • 1948 - 1950
      President of Columbia University, Columbia University
    • 1950
      Supreme Allied Commander of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (North Atlantic Treaty Organization), North Atlantic Treaty Organization
    • 1952 - 1960
      President of the United States, United States state system
    • show more ...

    Contributor  

    Anastasia Keda last changed 15/11/2012 view changes
    Alexey Linich last changed 26/06/2014 view changes
    • General Info
    • Activities
      • thirty-fourth president of the United States
    Go
    up
    Edit Profile