Albert Otto Hirschman is an influential economist who has authored several books on political economy and political ideology.
His first major contribution was in the area of development economics. Here he emphasized the need for unbalanced growth. Because developing countries are short of decision making skills, disequilibria to stimulate these and help mobilize resources should be encouraged. Key to this was encouraging industries with a large number of linkages to other firms.
His later work was in political economy and there he advanced two simple but intellectually powerful schemata. The first describes the three basic possible responses to decline in firms or polities: Exit, Voice, and Loyalty. The second describes the basic arguments made by conservatives: perversity, futility and jeopardy, in The Rhetoric of Reaction.
1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, Master of Arts: Harvard University Press
1991. The Rhetoric of Reaction: Perversity, Futility, Jeopardy. Cambridge, Master of Arts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
1945. National Power and the Structure of Foreign Trade 1980 expanded educated, Berkeley : University of California Press
1955. Colombia; highlights of a developing economy. Bogotá: Banco de la Republica Press.
1958. The Strategy of Economic Development. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press
1961. Latin American issues; essays and comments New York: Twentieth Century Fund.
1963. Journeys toward Progress: studies of economic policy-making in Latin America. New York: Twentieth Century Fund
1967. Development Projects Observed. Washington, District of Columbia: The Brookings Institution
1971. A bias for hope : essays on development and Latin America. New Haven: Yale University Press.
1977. The Passions and the Interests: Political Arguments For Capitalism Before Its Triumph. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
1980. National power and the structure of foreign trade. Berkeley: University of California Press.
1981. Essays in trespassing: economics to politics and beyond. Cambridge (England); New York: Cambridge University Press
1982. Shifting involvements: private interest and public action. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.
1984. Getting ahead collectively: grassroots experiences in Latin America (with photographs by Mitchell Denburg). New York: Pergamon Press
1985. A bias for hope: essays on development and Latin America. Boulder: Westview Press.
1986. Rival views of market society and other recent essays. New York: Viking.
1995. A propensity to self-subversion. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press
1998. Crossing boundaries: selected writings. New York: Zone Books; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Distributed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.