Sports and education editor, head photographer Grinnell Herald-Register, Grinnell, Iowa, 1972—1976. Reporter Worcester Telegram, Massachusetts, 1979—1988. Press secretary to representative Jim Leach Iowa, 1988—1993.
Adjunct professor, journalism American University, 1990—1992. Republican press secretary United States House Banking Committee, 1993—1994, Republican deputy communications director, 1995—1996. Senior professional staff member United States House Finance Services Committee, since 1996.