Bachelor of Science in Industrial Engineering, ITT, Bandung, Indonesia, 1974. Master of Science in Textile Engineering, ITT, Bandung, Indonesia, 1979. Master of Public Administration, Graduate School of Administration, Jakarta, Indonesia, 1987.
Master of Science in Energy Resources, University Pittsburgh, 1989. Doctor of Philosophy in Environmental Engineering, University Pittsburgh, 1993.
Supervisor Textile Industry, Pt. Lansano, Jakarta, 1974-1976, plant manager, 1976-1981. Head subdivision of energy Ministry Industry of Indonesia, 1981-1987.
Researcher University Pittsburgh, since 1989.