Researcher National Research Institute Legal Policy, Helsinki, 1974-1981. Court clerk, lower court judge Ikaalinen (Finland) District Court, 1981. Senior researcher European Institute for Crime Prevention and Control, affiliated with United Nations, Helsinki, 1982-1987, director, 1987-1993, 94-00.
Director international affairs Ministry of Justice, since 2000. Interregional adviser United Nations, Vienna, Austria, 1993, member committee on crime prevention and control, 1990-1992.