Diploma in nursing, Mercy Hospital, Pittsburgh, 1958. Bachelor of science in nursing cum laude, Boston College, 1963. Master in Pediatric Nursing cum laude, University Pittsburgh, 1965.
Master of Arts in Counselor Education, University Missouri, Kansas City, 1973. Doctor of Philosophy in Counseling Psychology, University Missouri, Kansas City, 1976.
Nurse specialist adolescent Children's National Medical Center, Washington, 1966. Clinical nurse specialist pedaiatrics Children's Mercy Hospital, Kansas City, Missouri, 1966-1967, University Missouri Medical Center, Kansas City, 1969-1970. Assistant professor School Nursing University Missouri, Columbia, 1969-1970, Graceland College, 1971.
Clinical nurse specialist pediatric cardiology School Medical University Kansas, Kansas City, 1975-1980, assistant professor School Nursing, 1968-1969, 71-72. Associate professor, professor School Nursing University Kans, 1975-1984, associate professor School Medical, 1975-1984. Professor School Nursing University North Carolina, Chapel Hill, since 1984.
Member American Academy Nursing, National Council Family Relations (family research group), American Association of University Professors, Society Research in Child Development, Society for Right to Die, Southern Nursing Research Society, Society Pediatric Nurses (founding president), North Carolina Nurses Association, Sigma Theta Tau.