Commissioned United States Army, 1969, advanced through grades to lieutenant colonel, retired, 1990. Assistant bureau chief Military Press Bureau, Multinat. Force and Observers, Sinai, Egypt, 1982-1983.
Executive officer United States Army Audiovisual Center, Washington, 1983-1985. Chief support division Office of the Secretary of Defense, Pentagon, 1985-1987, chief resources division, 1987-1990. Adjunct staff researcher Institute for Defense Analyses, McLean, Virginia, since 1990.