1917-1918 worked for militia and Housing Department, Moscow Soviet, then at National Arts Theater. J. 1918 at various Moscow theaters, contributed to Bryusov’s almanac “Khudozhestvennoe slovo” (Artistic Word), then at Vakhtangov’s Studio. 1923 visited Sweden, Germany, then Paris with Vakhtangov’s troupe.
Mid 1930's abandoned producing to devote himself entirely to literature. During World War II war correspondent, publicist and literature critic. In 1940’s censured by the Party for “estheticism” and “formalism”.
1957-1958 censured for “eulogizing" Pasternak’s work.