Until 1902 leader, Union for Liberation of the Working Class, Kharkov. 1902 exiled to Vologda Gubemiya. 1904 while in Switzerland worked as Party journalist, contributing to newspapers “Vpered” (Foreward) and “Proletariy” (The Proletariat).
1917 after Revolution was Head, Agitation and Instruction Department, All-Russia Central Executive Committee. Was also Head, Rural Department, Editorial Board, “Pravda”. Was Editor newspaper “Bednota” (Poverty).