Ivan PAPANIN, USSR Polar explorer. Doctor of Geography Science since 1938; Rear Admiral; Director, Institute of Water Reservoir Biology, USSR Academy of Science, since 1956. twice Hero of the Soviet Union; six Order of Lenin; Order of Red Banner of Labor; Order of Red Banner; five other orders and medals; a cape on Taimir Peninsula was named after him. Member, Communist Party, since 1919.
1931 member, expedition of ice breaker “Malygin” to Franz Josef Land. 1932-1933 Director, Tikhaya Bay Polar Station, Franz Josef Land. 1934-1935 on Cape Chelyuskin.
1935 supervised preparation of drifting icefloe station. 1936 organized supply base on Rudolph Island. 1937-1938 head of “Severny poly us” (North Pole) Research Station on drifting icefloe in Artie.
Since 1945 Chairman, Moscow Branch, USSR Geography Society. Since 1957 Deputy, Moscow City Soviet. During Civil War commander and comr. of Bolshevik naval detachments.
After World War I held leading posts in Soviet institutions. 1938-1946 Director, Main Admin, of the Northern Sea Route. During World War II simultaneously Special Commissioner, State Defense Council for Security of American and British Naval Transports in the Polar Area.
Since 1951 Head,Department of Maritime Expeditionary Work, USSR Academy of Science.
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