Sergey TOLSTOV, USSR Historian. Orientalist; ethnographer and archeologist; Professor; Director, Institute of Ethnography, USSR Academy of Science, since 1943; corresponding member, USSR Academy of Science, since 1953; Chief Editor, journal “Sovetskaya etnografiya”, since 1946; Honoured Worker of Science and Technology of Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic since 1950 and of Tadzhikistan Soviet Socialist Republic since 1951.
1939-1951 Head, Ethnography Department, Moscow University. Since 1959 Chairman, Soviet Society for Friendship and Cultural Relations with Afghanistan. 1927 research into Russ, ethnography and ethnography of peoples of Volga area.
Subsequently concentrated chiefly on archeology, ethnography and ancient hist, of Central Asia. Since 1937 Head, USSR Academy of Science Khorezm Archeological-Ethnographic Expedition. Dis covered and investigated numerous relics from neolithic to early medieval times (3rd- 4th c.).
Discovered relics of ancient Khorezm script and investigated important remains of ancient and medieval irrigation of Khorezm, Sary-Kamysh Depression, lower Syr-Darya and archeological monuments of Uzba riverbed. First Soviet archeologist to make wide use of aerial survey method. Reconstructed and periodized hist, of Central Asian peoples of 6th and 7th с.
BC and 5-6th c. AD; series of research works on ethnogenesis, primitive religion, periodization of hist, of primitive society, hist, of early Islam and general questions of Soviet ethnography.