Association Director, Division of Drug Management & Policies, World Health Organization since 1990. Chief Medical Officer, Drug Safety & Efficacy Evaluation, National Board of Health, Finland, 1989-1990, 1984-1987, 1971-1981. Senior Advisor, United Nations Fund for Drug Abuse Control, Vienna, 1988-1989.
Visiting Scientist, Centre for Drugs & Biologies, United States Food & Drug Administration, 1982-1983. Assistant Professor of Pharmacology, 1972-1990, Scientist & Lecturer, 1963-1968, Department of Pharmacology, University of Helsinki, Finland. Visiting Professor, Psychopharmacology, University of Texas Medical School at Houston, United States of America, 1968-1969.
Assistant Physician, Department of Internal Medical, Helsinki University Central Hospital, 1966-1968.