Party affiliation: Chinese Communist Party
Deputy Director, Bureau of Integrated Industrial Equipment, General Liaison Office of Economic Relations with Foreign Countries, 1962-1964. Deputy Director, Bureau of Integrated Industrial Equipment, State Commission for Economic Relations with Foreign Countries, 1964-1970. Vice Minister of Economic Relations with Foreign Countries, 1970-1977, Minister, 1977-1982.
Vice Premier, 1978-1982. Alternate Member, Politburo, 11th, 12th Central Committees, 1977-1987. Director, Birth Planning Leading Group under the State Council, 1978-1981.
Minister, Commission for Family Planning, 1981-1982. Minister for Foreign Economic Relations and Trade, 1982-1985. State Councillor, 1982-1988.
President, People's Bank, 1985-1988. Honorary Chairman, Board of Chairmen, Bank of China, since 1985. Member, National People's Congress: 5th, Zhejiang.
7th, Liaoning, Vice-Chairman, Standing Committee. Member, 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th Central Committees, since 1973. Professional career: survived the Cultural Revolution unharmed.