Bachelor of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy University Oxford, 1936,1939. Honorary DLitt University Bradford, 1975, University Sheffield, 1979, University Kent, 1979. Honorary Doctor of Laws University Aberdeen, 1978.
Fellow, All Souls College Oxford, 1937-1946. Head, Economics Section, United Kingdom Foreign Office Research Department, 1943-1945. Member, Economics Section, United Kingdom Cabinet Office, 1945-1947.
Professor of Economics, University Leeds, 1947-1949. Visiting Professor, Columbia University, 1950, American National University, 1963. Member, E. African Economics and Fiscal Commission, 1960, United Kingdom Secretary State’s Advisory Group on Central Africa, 1962, United Nations Expert Group, Economics and Social Consequences Disarmament, 1961-1962.
Head, Regional Economics Research Project, National Institute of Economie and Social Research, London, United Kingdom, 1966-1972. United Kingdom Hunt Committee Intermediate Areas, 1967-1969. European Economie Community Group Role of Public Finance in Eur.
Integration, 1975-1977. United Kingdom University Grants Committee, 1969-1978. Pro-Vice-Chancellor, University Leeds, 1975-1977.
Emeritus Professor, University Leeds, United Kingdom, since 1979. Editorial Board, Yorkshire Bulletin of Economic and Social Research, 1948-1979.
Have tried to be guided by Keynes’s precept that economists should aspire to be useful people, like dentists. First research (1936-1939) was on liquidity preference, including estimation of banks’ assetdemand functions and the demand function for idle money. In wartime, turned to comparison of economic war efforts and to foreign trade elasticities and other topics related to postwar reconstruction.
A combination of these interests led to work on wartime and postwar inflations, including elucidation of the price-wage spiral, and an adumbration of the Phillips curve and the probable need for incomes policies (1947-1955). After a period spent mostly on a textbook with an international comparative emphasis, invitations to serve on various advisory bodies led to work on customs unions between developing countries, with special reference to demand effects and economies of scale, and on economic consequences of disarmament. The former led to regional economics and, through a government initiative, direction of a study of that aspect of the United Kingdom economy, the keynote of which was the relation between frictions of factor-movement and unemployment (1966-1972).
Several of these lines of interest were combined in work on possible development of the European Economie Community (MacDougall Group, 1975-1977). More recently, pure curiosity has led back to an attempt to make sense of the last thirty years’ experience of inflation by an international comparative study to see how well or badly my insights of 1955 survive.