Doctor of Medicine, University Rome, 1982. Master of Science in Human Behavior & Development, Drexel University, 1985. Postgraduate diploma in infectious diseases, University Bologna, Italy, 1993.
Diploma in psychotherapy, Italian Institute Thanatology, Bologna, 1995. Doctor of Philosophy in Work and Organizational Psychology, University Bologna, 1997. Master of Science in Labour and Industrial Relations, University Bologna, 2000.
ClinPsyD, Salesian Pontifical University, Rome, 2005.