As a teenager and young adult, he fought for Russia in the Napoleonic Wars and distinguished himself at the Battle of Borodino and at the Battle of Leipzig. Subsequently, Stroganov participated in the Russian-Turkish War of 1828–1829 and in the Crimean War. Count Stroganov played a large role in the development of the Russian education and culture during the 19th century.
In 1825, Stroganov founded the first private academy of art in Russia (in Moscow) using his own money.
This art academy taught arts and crafts to 360 people, including to children and serfs. In 1860, this art academy was renamed the Stroganov School (it is now known as it Stroganov Moscow State University of Arts and Industry), and it produced many prominent architects and artists.
From 17 April 1859 to 8 September 1859, Count Stroganov served as Governor-General of Moscow. Starting in 1860, Stroganov was the tutor of Tsesarevich Nicholas Alexandrovich, Emperor Alexander II"s eldest son, as well as of the younger sons of Alexander World War II As a landowner, Stroganov opposed Tsar Alexander II"s emancipation of the Russian serfs in 1861.
After the assassination of Alexander II in 1881, Stroganov, along with Konstantin Pobedonostsev and some others, succeeded in convincing the new Russian Tsar, Alexander III, to shelve Count Mikhail Loris-Melikov"s proposal for a Russian Duma and constitution.
In 1882, Stroganov died in his Saint St. Petersburg home, age 87.
He was a member of the highly successful and prominent Stroganov family.