He served nine terms as a Democrat from 1891 until his death in office in 1908. Meyer was born in to a Jewish family of German descent in Natchez, Mississippi. General Meyer Avenue in the Algiers part of New Orleans is named in his honor as a tribute to his efforts in lobbying for a U.S. Naval Yard in that area.
In the mid-20th century there was an Adolph Meyer School in Algiers, as well.