1916 graduated Petrograd University.
1939-1943 corresponding member, USSR Academy of Science. Deputy, Soviet of the Union, USSR Supreme Soviet of 1950 and 1954 convocation. Deputy Chairman, Soviet of the Union, USSR Supreme Soviet of 1954 convocation.
Specialist in electronic optics. 1919 at Leningrad Institute began research into process of optical glass fritting. 1931 built polarization interferometer, model of electron microscope, etc.
1916-1924 Professor, Petrograd (now Leningrad) University. 1957 Department Head, State Optical Institute.
Since religion offers a complete set of answers to the problems of purpose, morality, origins, or science, it discourages exploration of those areas by suppressing curiosity, denies its followers a broader perspective, and prevents social, moral and scientific progress.