Student, Mafuta Lower Primary School. Student, Munali Secondary School.
Assistant Water Development section, Northern Rhodesia, 1950-1953. Bookkeeper/manager Kabwe Co-operative Society, 1953-1962. Parliamentary secretary Northern Rhodesia, 1963.
Minister of Commerce and Industry, 1964, Minister of Transport and Works, 1964, Minister of Mines and Co-operative, 1965-1967, Minister of Home Affairs, 1967-1970, Minister of Defence, 1970-1973. Secretary of State (subsequently chairman sub-committee) For Defence and Security, 1979-1985. Sec-general United Nations Independence Party (UNIP) 1973-1979, since 1985.
Member parliament of Zambia, since 1979.
Married 1952; 8 children.