Master Commerce, Victoria University, 1950.
Economist, Reserve Bank, Wellington, New Zealand, 1946-1960; seconded to South Pacific Commission, Reserve Bank, Noumea, New Caledonia, 1953-1955; senior research officer, New Zealand Institute Economics Research, Wellington, 1960-1966; division chief, International Monetary Fund, Washington, 1966-1970; professor, Waikato U., Hamilton, New Zealand, 1970-1977; professor, Auckland U., 1977-1990; consultant, Business and Economics Research Ltd., Wellington, 1958-1990; executive director, Business and Economics Research Ltd., Wellington, since 1991.
Member New Zealand Association Economists, International Institute Forecasters.
Married Ailsa Elaine Ihle, July 9, 1949. Children: Christine, Russell, Malcolm.