Born in Safed, Aharoni received a Master of Arts in Physics from Hebrew University in 1953 and a Doctor of Philosophy in Physics from the Weizmann Institute in 1957. His thesis was on magnetoresistive memory elements. His postdoc work with John Bardeen took him to the University of Illinois during 1958-1959.
In 1971-1972, 1977–1978, and 1992 he was a Senior Fellow in the Department of Metallurgy at the University of Oxford.
In 1972 he was promoted to professor in the Department of Electronics at Weizmann Institute, and in 1978 he was appointed the Richard Kronstein Professor of Theoretical Magnetism.
Postdoctoral fellow, University of Illinois, Urbana, 1958-1959; senior research physicist, National Cash Register Company, Dayton, Ohio., 1964-1965; visiting professor electrical engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, 1965-1966; visiting professor physics, U. Oxford, England, 1971-1972, 77-78, 92; various teaching positions, Weizman Institute Science, Rehevoth, Israel then Richard Kronstein professor, Weizman Institute Science, Rehevoth, since 1978.
Fellow Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (Distinguished lecturer Magnetics Society 1993). Member American Physical Society, Israeli Physical Society.
Married Henia Roza, January 4, 1955. Children: Abraham, Gad, Dan.