He earned his doctorate in 1882, and became médecin des hôpitaux. In 1907 he was appointed professor of internal medicine at the Paris faculty. Chauffard is remembered for his work involving liver disease and his pathophysiological research of hereditary spherocytosis.
His name is associated with the following disorders: "Minkowski-Chauffard disease": Congenital hemolytic anemia with spherocytosis, splenomegaly and jaundice.
Named with Oskar Minkowski (1858–1931). "Troisier-Hanot-Chauffard syndrome": Hypertrophic cirrhosis with skin pigmentation and diabetes mellitus.
Sometimes called primary hemochromatosis, bronze diabetes, pigmentary cirrhosis or iron overload disease. Named with Victor Charles Hanot (1844–1896) and Charles Emile Troisier (1844–1919).