From 1925 to 1933 he attended school in Trautmannsdorf, and afterwards attended agricultural technical school in Bruck an der Leitha.
From 1946, Maurer was politically active as a farmers" representative, and then entered local politics, serving on the Trautmannsdorf city council from 1951 to 1956. In 1959 he was elected to the Landtag of Lower Austria, where he served until 1964. From 1964 to 1966 he was an official (Landesrat) in the provincial government of Lower Austria, as well as President of the Austrian Farmers" Federation.
From 1970 to 1989 he was chairman of the Lower Austrian Farmers" Federation.
From November 24, 1966 through January 22, 1981, Maurer was the Landeshauptmann (Governor) of Lower Austria. During this lengthy term, he oversaw development of the state"s road system, as well as a general process of modernization.
His government enacted compulsory education, a regional planning law, a nature protection law, and a new state constitution.