1911 graduated St. Petersburg Medicine Institute.
Author of numerous works, mainly on neurotrophics and nervous and hormonal factors in the origin of pneumonia and lung edema. 1950 at a science conference on the physiological teachings of I. P. Pavlov her works were criticized for distorting the latter’s teachings. 1959 presented papers at a session of AllUnion Institute of Experimental Endocrinology and at 21st International Congress of Physiologists, Argentina.
1960 presented a paper at International Congress of Endocrinologists, Copenhagen. Since 1911 for some time served as physician in Transbaykal, moved to St. Petersburg before World War I and worked successively as Assistant, lecturer and Professor, Chairs of Physiology, Lesgaft Higher Courses, 1st Petrograd Medicine Institute, Leningrad Military Medicine Academy, and in various physiological laboratories founded by L. A. Orbeli.
Since religion offers a complete set of answers to the problems of purpose, morality, origins, or science, it discourages exploration of those areas by suppressing curiosity, denies its followers a broader perspective, and prevents social, moral and scientific progress.