Born in Lynchburg, Virginia to Anne Dabney Stuart and Judge Alexander Stuart, Stuart attended private schools and completed preparatory studies as a child. He became an officer in the War of 1812 and studied law afterward.
After being admitted to the bar, commenced practice in Lynchburg. He became a delegate to the Virginia Constitutional Conventions in 1829, 1830, 1850 and 1851. was elected a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives in 1836, serving from 1837 to 1839. After losing reelection to Isaac Adams, resumed practicing law.
He served to the Virginia Senate, serving from 1852 to 1854. died suddenly at his home, "Laurel Hill" in Patrick County, Virginia, on September 20, 1855.
He was interred in the family cemetery at Laurel Hill. 1837; was elected to the United States. House of Representatives with 56.08% of the vote, defeating Whig Nathaniel H. Claiborne.
1839. Lost his re-election bid.
Member Virginia; member United States House Member Virginia.