Bachelor of Science London School of Economies and Political Science, London, United Kingdom, 1951. Doctor of Philosophy University London,1958.
Lector Economics, University Durham, 1956-1958. Lector, Reader Economics, London School of Economies and Political Science, London, United Kingdom, 1958-1964,1964-1968. Visiting Professor, University California Berkeley, 1965-1966.
Senior Economics Adviser, United Kingdom Department Employment & Productivity, 1968-1970. Professor of Economics, Queen Mary College, University London, since 1968. Review Editor, Ec, 1962- Si Editorial Boards, Applied Economics, since 1972, J. Economics Studies, since 1972.
General Theory was undoubtedly the economics text that influenced me the most and its dominant influence remains with me — even though many of my friends now regard it as a hindrance to better economic understanding. I was drawn to economics via politics and to Keynes because of childhood memories of the 1930s and the evils that mass unemployment brings. The great personal influence on my economic studies was unquestionably Lionel Robbins, as it was for so many generations of London School of Economies and Political Science, London, United Kingdom students.
From him I learned a love of, and respect for, scholarship, an interest in methodology (with the important additional influence of Karl Popper), a concern for economic policy, and many other things. My main research areas have been, and remain, the history of economic thought — or rather the history of economic analysis — and labour economics. In both of these areas the macroeconomic aspects have been my prime concern. My main contribution to the history of economic theory has been an attempt to understand classical macro-theory and to assess the ‘Keynesian’ element in the pre-Keynes literature, mainly in the classical period.
And my current research is taking this story through the neoclassical period. In labour economics (in collaboration with J. A. Roberts and J. Nugent), I have been concerned with the female labour market and in particular the responsiveness of activity rates to unemployment. My current interest here is in the operation of the market for part-time employees.
I remain firmly convinced of the importance and current relevance of Keynes’s economics and still feel that, in the main, he has not been correctly interpreted especially with respect to the real wage/ employment relationship. It is this relationship which is my major theoretical concern at the moment.