1928 graduated Gorsky Pedagogical Institute, Ordzhonikidze. 1930 completed postgrad, course at Bekhterev Brain Institute, Leningrad.
Member, Editor Board, journal “Voprosy psikhologii” (Problems of Psychology). V.-President, Soviet Society of Psychologists. Main works deal with: study of sensations.
Transition from sensory perception to thought. Pedagogics psychology. Psychopathology; hist, of Russ, psychology.
All religions persuade people to rely on outside authority, thus preventing them to become self-reliant.